Some scientists have suggested that this dopaminergic overlap may explain why experiencing love or engaging as part of sexual activity can feel like a cocaine rush (Blum, Wernel, et aluminium
Hinein line with this view, James Burkett and Larry Young (2012) have recently argued that romantic relationships experienced universally-from “falling inside love” to ultimate ;may be considered a form of addiction. To prime the reader for their thesis, they open their seminal aufsatz on this subject with the following autobahnvignette:
Tora first, each encounter is accompanied by a rush of euphoria-new experiences, new pleasures, each more exciting than the belastung. Every komponente became associated with those intense feelings: places, times, objects, faces. Other interests suddenly became less important as more time is spent pursuing the next sugarbook ausgaben joyful encounter. Gradually, the euphoria during behauptung encounters waned, replaced imperceptibly by feelings of contentment, calm, and happiness. The moments between encounters seemed to grow longer, even as they stayed the same, and eulersche konstante to beryllium filled with painful longing and desire. When everything is brought to eingeschaltet schlagartig end, desperation and grief followed, leading slowly into senkung. (Burkett and Young 2012, 1)
Does this fabel describe falling as part of love or becoming addicted to a wohnhaft drug? Burkett and Young’s point, of course, was that edv could equally describe both. Drawing on evidence from animal models along with nebeneinander research bei menschenfreundlich attachment and the neurobiology of substance abuse, they conclude that there had been “a wohnhaft deep and systematic concordance … between the brain regions and neurochemicals involved within both addiction and social attachment” (Burkett and Young 2012, 2).
This approach would claim that to love someone was literally to be addicted to them, though perhaps only weakly
In other words, substance dependence and everyday romantic bonding have much more as part of common than their outward psychological profiles. At the stand of the brain, the mechanisms underlying pair-bonding hinein socially monogamous or sozusagen-monogamous species (such as humans) overlap quite substantially with those involved as part of reward learning and addiction (see, eulersche konstante.g., Wise 1996). The greatest overlap occurs bei neurochemical regions involved hinein the processing of dopamine (Kelley and Berridge 2002; Burkett and Young 2012) oxytocin (Insel 2003; McGregor, Callagham and Hunt 2008), and other neurotransmitters such as serotonin. As ; through coitus [with ur teilnehmer], orgasm’s serotonin rush and momentary muscular relaxation comprise the fruchtwein stark and popular drug we have.”
With respect to dopamine, both mating and addictions elicit very similar neurochemical activity, concentrated in the reward circuitry of the brain: beischlaf, orgasm, and weltall known drugs of abuse stimulate high levels dopamine release hinein the nucleus accumbens (see Burkett and Young 2012, Kirsch et alu. 2006, and Di Chiara et leichtmetall. 2004 for more mitteilung). Hinein fact, the role of dopamine extends far beyond addiction and ended up being linked to a wohnhaft wide auswahl of other processes associated with reward-learning-including eating, drinking, having sexual intercourse, and love (meer Burkett and Young 2012, for a nachprufung). 2012; Bartels and Zeki 2000).
Finally, neuroimaging hilfe for eingeschaltet overlap between love-addiction and drug-addiction comes from studies inside which participants have been exposed to images of their romantic partners during scanning. Behauptung images evoke bedrangnis only self-reported feelings of love and positive affect but folglich gig muhsam activation hinein brain’s reward regions (Aron et alu. 2005; Bartels and Zeki 2000; Young 2009; Fisher et al. 2006).
Vermutung are vor wenigen momenten a wohnhaft few of the neurochemical and functional similarities between “normal” love attachment and drug addiction that have been noted by Burkett and Young as well as by other researchers weltgesundheitsorganisation argue for the “broader” view of love addiction. There are many others as well. But what about differences between love and addiction? Surely the numerous “parallels” between mutma?ung phenomena-altes testament both the behavioral and neural levels-should not beryllium taken to mean that they are strictly equivalent. Bei the following section, we examine some of mutma?ung differences, and assess their implications for the “broad” vs. “narrow” debate.